Sunday, February 12, 2006


Feb 2B

Before every big storm is even over, there is always speculation about another one lurking out there, just waiting to pounce before your back has had a chance to recover. This time, the crystal ball is more murky and there are big changes going on in the atmosphere, it will take some time to get the pattern aligned again to produce something on the magnitude of what we just had, if at all. A quick glimpse at the computer models shows two events following February Kahuna # 1. Storm # 2 seems likely to cut up west of mountains, which means rain for the East coast and possible flooding due to snow clogging storm drains. On the heels of this storm will be brutally cold Arctic air, the coldest of the season, arriving Sunday and dragging into the week after. With an active Subtropical Jet turning up in the face of a large Arctic high parking over the eastern 2/3rd of the country, one would surmise that this setup has potential to deliver another snow event for the Northeast sometime NEXT Tue or Wed. The other interesting factor is our old standy, the North Atlantic Oscillation, is scheduled to stay flat the next 7-10 days. This bodes well for storm development because a stable NAO in the neutral position would allow a big system to move gradually across the country from the SW to the Gulf to the Northeast while gathering lots of moisture on it's way. A strong negative NAO might overwhelm the pattern and push the storm out to sea along the Carolinas. A strong positive NAO would cause the storm to drift too far north as it comes up from the south, and you'd see snow change to rain. This much is certain:

1. There will be plenty of cold air in Canada that has to make it south sometime soon.

2. Each day we approach Spring the SubTropical Jet gets climatologically more active.

3. If the snowpack over the Northeast survives this week, that will only enhance your chance for another big storm in the February 18-22 time frame.

I am working on my storm grade numbers among other tasks around the house. But here is a synposis of what happened (and is still happening in this storm). I will add to this with a few links and some graphics later.

1. Conventional wisdom about storm dynamics did not work well. The waters off New Jersey and Southern New England are below normal. This should not have enabled the storm to explode the way it did. It is possible the above normal waters near NC provided more rapid evaporation and the transfer of moisture from the ocean to the storm to the land was faster than expected. Thus you read amazing reports of 11" in 3 hours at New York City.

2. The lack of "cold air damming" at the onset of this storm obviously did not impede it's ability to hammer us. There was enough thermodynamic energy in the right places (in the ocean) to allow the storm to quickly tap the reservoir of cold air in eastern Ontario. This cold air was drawn into the storm a lot quicker than I expected, resulting in a rapid conversion of moisture to snow and the strong upward motion which resulted from this produced the thunderstorm like effects of thundersnow and lighting. It was a classic clash of cold and warm in a dramatic way. I was real skeptical Saturday afternoon when the temps in Dundalk were 42 F and the sun was shining. Yet 5 hours later the snow was falling heavily and sticking to roadways. There was enough cold air drawn into to overcome the brief warmth.

3. The wide disparity in accumulations (8 - 21 inches in Baltimore Metro region, for example) was simply a wintertime example of what summertime thunderstorms do. In summer, one part of town can be drenched with a huge downpour while the other side of town is basking in the sun. Same thing with this storm, except that the thunderstorms developed inside a raging snowstorm, and when they popped, up went your snowfall rates almost instantly. Areas that did not see the crazy amounts of snow were simply missed by the little mini-thunderstorm cells that briefly materialized inside the snow bands, dropped their extra 3-4 inches and then fizzled. Had I thought ahead that the upward motion effect would produce thundersnow, I would have upped my totals. However, predicting where and when a random thunderstorm is going to strike, especially when the storm itself is buried inside a blizzard no less, it just about impossible. There were only a few rumbles of thunder in Dundalk, and we were on the low end of snowfall.. 11-12 inches. Other areas like Timonium have 18" and there were many reports of thundersnow for at least an hour last night. So there's the connection.

Yes, friends I will be wearing the bag, and having Mommy take a picture for all of you to see. I challenge my news media counterparts to do the same when their forecasts bust, up or down. The pic will be posted here shortly, along with a pic from our local bus lot to show you how much work they have up there. See you later tonight.

Take a look at this satellite loop if you don't believe me.
Feb 1G

As of 7:45 least 11 inches in Dundalk, MD at Foot's Forecast HQ

Feb 1F

Okay, I admit it, there is a teensy bit more than 4" out there at the present time.
Hey, quit complaining my forecast was off the mark, because the next statement
will make it all worth the hassle. My new name is Captain Obvious, and I want to say:


We have crossed the 8" barrier necessary to make it impossible for school bus parking lots to be cleared in time for regular opening time on Monday. I will march myself the grueling 1/3 of a mile up the road later today and take a photo of our local bus parking lot to demonstrate proof of my theory.

Am working on an analysis of my snowfall amounts for the first 2 period of the storm (12 noon Sat - 12 midnight Sat, and 12AM Sun to 6AM Sun) now I have a third period to assess for how much more and when it will stop.

A reminder to anyone who has joined us since midnight today, if you wish to be added to the email distribution list, please send me a message at Note that I will not reply to your message, just be assured your address will be added to the list. This feature will be used when there is a developing situation and I cannot post to the site during school because our filtering system blocks most blogs from being viewed by school computers. If you already sent a message in the past 24 hours, you are already on the list.


Feb 1E

Let me use Dundalk as my guide for what is left of the storm. I estimated 4 inches would fall by midnight Saturday, and we had about 4. Then I said another 4 inches by 6:00 AM, and we have about 5.5 for a total of probably 10 at the moment. For Dundalk, MD I estimate another 2 inches will fall between 7 AM and Noon before the storm finally winds down to flurries. Looking at the Northeast radar, you can see the back edge is starting to approach, but as Andy from southern York County has pointed out before, that back edge sometimes keeps redeveloping further west as the storm rotates through. Appears to be about a 5 degree backing tilt every 15 minutes, and each tilt is shifting the axis of heavy snow from a SW-NE orientation to a more S to N orientation. Though the dark blues are heading south and east, the rotation may bring some of what is north of you on this map (wherever north of your location is) back down on top of you. Hence the reason Philly extended the Heavy Snow Warning to 1PM.

I am going to apply that rule to everyone from Central and Eastern PA south to DC, Virginia and NC who is under the blue region of the radar. I believe you'll see 2-4 more inches between now and Noon, less towards the west, more toward the East.

1. From DC to Balto to Frederick MD west to Harper's Ferry, WV... 1 more inch.

2. Along a line from DC to Balto to Philly and east to Del-Mar-Va, another 2-3 inches by noon

3. Along the extreme Eastern shores of Del-Mar-Va and New Jersey, believe it or not another 3-4 inches due to an ocean enhancing effect as the snow shield rotates with the departing Low.

Oh so you want the part about me wearing the bad, do you? Well as soon as Mommy wakes up, I'll get her to take a picture and then I'll the tail-between-the-legs commentary on what went wrong.

Saturday, February 11, 2006

10:40 PM evening update
Feb 1D

This is what walking on sunshine is like in the Foot household, when I can watch my little girl participate in her first big snowstorm. Ironically this is arriving on the 23rd anniversary of my first big snowstorm as a child, the Feb 11 Blizzard of 1983. (The date says 2/12 because the camera is set incorrectly, but trust me this was around 7 PM Saturday).

So here we are about to turn the corner and go into the long night of what may be terrifically heavy snow for some (DC to NYC ) or a long night of anticipation for others (Boston on north). Heck I even heard that Tampa NWS is calling for flurries tomorrow. At the current rate of snowfall in the Baltimore region, it appears my 4" is going to verify and probably go over. This might sound wishy-washy, but my original forecast as posted in earlier statements and on the email distribution list was 4" in Dundalk by midnight Saturday. That looks to be right on. But the storm is no where near over. I can now see on radar the long expected "pivoting" of the comma head and the Low now deepening off Albemarle Sound in coastal NC. It seems likely that bands of heavy snow will continue to redevelop over the I-95 corridor into the night as moisture rotating in from the Atlantic gets "wrapped around" by the return flow on the NW side of the storm. I also see that our old friend NAO has slowly trended from slightly negative to neutral in the past few days and I have said many times before that is an essential piece of the puzzle needed to get a Nor'easter to turn up the coast ever so gently in order for the Mid-Atlantic to get blasted.

The next graphic shows what accumulations I expect to occur over the next 8 hours... from 10:00 PM to 6:00 AM. This assumes that all of my numbers posted earlier verify and you would add on top of those to get your storm totals. For our friends in the North...specifically Southern New England, I will do a separate forecast for you Sunday morning. The numbers you see here are supposed to represent the locations of our frequent viewing friends and what I think will fall at your house between NOW and 6:00 AM. So please post your observations first thing tomorrow so we can compare notes.

Feb 1C

I am not going to pretend that I was right all along and change my story to make it sound like I really nailed this one. I do think it is fair to say that I accurately predicted 3 days in advance the amount of snow that would be on the ground by midnight in my backyard. On Thursday 2/9 I said 4" by midnight. But in all fairness, I underestimated the ability of the storm to maintain a large snow shield when it was still in developmental stages. I also did not expect the storm to hug the coast as much as it did, and seeing the NAO now makes me realize that was probably going to be the case from the beginning. It will be interesting to see what the storm does once it moves out of the above normal waters of the Gulf Stream and into the below normal waters south of Long Island and off the Jersey Coast.

So the Final Word on this Storm, I think it will be ranked a 3 on the newly established NESIS (Northeast Snowfall Impact Scale) created by our buddy Paul Kocin of TWC and Louis Uccellini of NWS in 2004. I compare this most closely with the Jan 22, 1987 storm which has a special place in my heart for a few reasons I'll explain later.

How Big Kahuna #1 of 2006 may end up a Boston Blizzard and a Baltimore Bust

Feb 1B


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If you already submitted your name, I added about 30 names just since 8AM. Thanks.


1. While I believe parts of this storm will not deliver the predicted 8-14" for some areas, I did call the onset of this storm back on January 25 when I said, "Major East Coast Snowstorm in the February 10-20 time frame" that is for anyone who thought I was slipping in my old age.

2. I have been skeptical of the forecasts for this storm from the beginning, and since Thursday, 2/9 I have been flatly stating to colleagues in the Baltimore region that this would not deliver more than 4-5" all together. I am going to hold firm to that forecast UNTIL I see with my own eyes a solid 4" on the ground in my backyard. Then I will adjust amounts.

WHAT FOLLOWS IS A TRANSCRIPT OF MY EARLIER FORECASTS POSTED IN THE EMAIL LIST ON THU 2/9 AND FRI 2/10 for those who have just joined the distribution list today, so you know the basis of the forecast.

(Emailed Thursday 2/9/06 to the Distribution List)

SNOW: Yes.
WHEN: Saturday noon to Sunday morning
HOW MUCH: 4 inches on the ground by midnight Saturday in Dundalk, MD
COLD & WINDY: Yeah sort of... highs around 35 with winds of 15-20 mph
EARLY DISMISSAL FRIDAY: No. Didn't you read the part about the storm starting SATURDAY.
DELAYED OR CLOSED MONDAY: No. Crews will have enough time to clear lots by Monday AM.
WHY? Because National Weather Service computers project roughly .5-1.0 inch of "liquid equivalent" to fall out of the sky over the Baltimore Metro region. See this link: (The purple is about .50 inches)

In a normal storm situation, 1 inch of rain is 10 inches of snow at 30 degrees. Since the Saturday temp will be closer to 35, you have to knock a few inches off the possible 10", and a few more inches due to higher sun angle and a later start time, however the ground will be plenty cold for any precip to stick on contact. Factor in that this storm is likely to be a quick mover, and strong winds behind it will blow the snow around, hence 4 inches is my final answer. (Sat PM comment, actually the ground ended up being warmer than I thought)

My forecast accountability procedure dictates that I am graded on how close to the predicted number on either side of the equation (whether over or under). Thus, if prediction is 4" and we get 5" that is 80% and a B. Or if we get 3" of the 4" = 75% and a C.

(The following was emailed to the Distribution List on Friday morning 2/10)

If you read Thursday's comments on this storm, then you know everything there is to know about what will happen in the Baltimore Metro Region.

"BUT... BUT... THE NEWS SAID 6 - 12" !!!"
They're wrong. Ain't nobody in all of Baltimore County gonna get 12 inches.

All y'all will have 4 INCHES on the ground by midnight Saturday from
Towson on south to DC, and MAYBE 6 inches MAX from Towson on north
to the PA line. (Okay, Hereford gets 6.2) Here's why:

1. High Pressure in Canada is NOT in an ideal location for a big Baltimore storm.
That alone makes me discount this storm somewhat.

2. It's Cloudy right now (8AM Friday). That's baaadd, because the clouds act as
thermal insulator, and hold any heat at the surface in. Sun shines through clouds,
creating a wintertime greenhouse effect. Any heat generated today will be trapped
overnight, making more difficult for the early stages of the storm to produce heavy snow.

3. Though the sky is cloudy, the air is dry and this forces the storm to work harder
because it has to "moisten the column" of air in order for snow falling up there to
get down here before evaporating. Granted this phenomenon of "evaporative cooling"
will chill the atmosphere, but not so much that 4 inches turns into TWELVE! sheesh.

4. The orientation of the polar and subtropical jets are such that as the storm develops,
it will get squeezed by the jets as they amplify and come together, ejecting the storm
out by the Virginia capes. This will be a thump, dump, done storm.

5. To get the "12 inches of biblical porportions", any location would have to see at
least 1 inch per hour for over 10 hours. This storm will not have the staying power required
to sustain such consistently high snowfall rates over a long period of time.

Happy Friday!

Forecaster Foot

- The Character 'Rockhound' in the 1998 science fiction film Armageddon

7:45 am UPDATE
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I wake up this morning unable to sleep further, not because the ladies are up, but rather that I just had to look out the window. Nothing yet, so I wonder.. hey maybe the storm did back off after all. Good, that would mean my forecast has a good chance of verifying. So I stumble downstairs trying to stay quiet in order to have at least 39 and 1/2 seconds of private time today before, well, you know... the Golden Girls wake up. I really do love all of them and I enjoy nothing more than spending all day playing and watching them grow. But when Golden Girl Jayla wakes up (oop, I just heard pitter patter of feet upstairs) and sees me on the computer, she will say... "Good Morning Daddy... (pause) get off the computer." Sure enough, there she is... okay, so there goes the morning and my update. I'll try to get back to the forecast after breakfast.

Basically it looks like my original forecast needs some serious dressing up, as Rockhound said, it is time to embrace the horror (and the hype), because a total storm accumulation of 10-15 inches along the I-95 corridor is a serious serious problem that will without a doubt cancel most schools on Monday from DC to Boston. So Yes Virginia, I am raising my totals and will do that soon. Thank you to many who sent a message requesting to be added to the forecast update list. Be back later.

Friday, February 10, 2006

No comments:

Finally, the Mid-Atlantic gets a storm they have long deserved, and if all goes as planned, even Richmond, NYC and Boston will get into the act. Thus, I am naming this Big Kahuna # 1 for the 2005-06 winter. Let me just issue my storm grade forecast for accumulations and leave it at that for now. From south to north...

Richmond, VA: 4 / Charlottesville, VA: 7 / Martinsburg, WV: 8
Baltimore, MD (BWI): 6 / Dundalk, MD: 5 / Towson: 4 / Elkton, MD: 4
Malvern, PA: 7 / Philadelphia, PA: 8 / Bucks Co, PA: 7 / State College, PA: 1
Ocean City, NJ: 10 / Rutgers Univ: 8
Central Park, NYC: 11 / Hartford, CT: 12 / Providence, RI: 13 / Boston, Logan Apt: 11
Woburn, MA: 14

I may add or update these numbers Saturday morning.

It is nice to see that a forecast I made some 15 days ago is coming to fruition, even if it was short on details. I realize that many viewers have long given up on checking this site because of the persistent lack of posts, so thank you to the both of you, whomever you are...for continuing to check back from time to time. I'm sure those of you who do check are tired of the apologies and just want to see a forecast. I knew that adding a child to one's family might slow me down at home, but it has had the effect of virtually halting all efforts to interact with the outside world once we go into the 4PM to 10PM realm. I know many of you are parents or have worked with youth extensively and have been through all of this so much you could even design a website and offer parenting advice. But nowadays, with a wonderful little baby girl clinging to my shoulder gazing into my eyes, it is just about impossible to do much else at home in the evenings aside from caring for and spending time with my three ladies. I have been skeptical of this storm since the beginning, and am still for several reasons, but I don't have the brainpower to explain it all right now.

So here's my solution, which seems to be working thus far:

1. I have limited time in the early AM to actually write a post, all I can do is review my maps and data at home on the high speed line. When I used to post, from 6-6:30 to 6:45 am last year is now the time I am with my first daughter getting her breakfast and ready for daycare, so I have to be off the computer by 6:00 AM.

2. When I get to school, I usually have a few minutes during my email checks of my planning period, which I am blessed to have first period. This enables me to do all of my computer work, grading, lesson planning, copies and other crisis management tasks before students walk in. This is also my most productive time of the day and when I can most quickly write a forecast.

3. Here's where you come in. I send out the forecasts on an email distribution list (just started doing this the week of Feb 7 so it is new). I am embarrassed to say we haven't checked our HOME email account in days.. too busy with family. But I check school email at least 10 times a day. If you or anyone you know wants to get an instant update that is not going to be blocked by a filter (as blogspot and typepad are), then do this:

SEND A REQUEST TO ME AT: that you want your name and address added to the distribution list. I can do it in a flash and then we'll always be connected. I promise that you and your emails will not be ignored or overlooked. What you can't do is start corresponding with me on school email, as that will slow down my ability to focus on my job and could be interpreted by the school as personal use for which I can be penalized. My administration appears supportive of this approach and the email updates I send are right to the point.
I will continue trying to post to this site, and unfortunately I may let the typepad site go for now until summer. But if you don't add yourself to the email list, you may never see an update again! If this site goes silent for long periods of time, it means that family responsibilites have bumped everything to the bottom of the list, and forecasting is usually the first to go.

So I hope I can win you back with the email idea, and we'll try to resurrect the special community we once had going on here. Enjoy the storm and I'll post again soon when I can. Thank you for your support and understanding.
Mr. Foot

Wednesday, February 8, 2006

No comments:
(or rather, feeding, burping, changing diapers...)

Trying to post a forecast while feeding an infant and typing with one hand.
More details after the children are asleep.

Wednesday, January 25, 2006

No comments:


PLEASE NOTE THAT DUE TO TIME CONSTRAINTS OF ADDING BABY TO THE FAMILY MEANS THAT WEBSITE POSTS WILL ONLY OCCUR WHEN THERE IS STRONG POTENTIAL OF A SIGNIFICANT STORM EVENT IN THE NEAR FUTURE. My normal evening forecast activities have been usurped by the needs cute little bundle of waving legs and arms known as Kaselyn. Until Mrs. Foot and I get a handle on how to handle getting the two of them in bed on time, do not expect any regular updates on this site UNLESS there is a major storm brewing.

Thank you for your patience, understanding and thoughtful emails of late.

Sincerely, Mr. Foot

Friday, December 16, 2005


1. No big storms next week, just cold weather
2. Xmas week...mix of cold/warm, some rain/snow
3. January disappoints with above-normal temps

Xmas Week 05

Dec 4A

For those of you who did not get the delay or closing you hoped, at least it is a "payday Friday" for many of us. Considering that the holiday vacation time is fast approaching, it is comforting to know that the Northeast will have a quiet week coming up. With people making travel and shopping plans, kids off the wall, parents getting frazzled, teachers ready for a least the weather will not throw a monkey wrench in the calendar between now and next Friday. The GFS (Global Forecast System) map shown above is usually the forecast model of choice for the NWS, and the next storm progged for Sunday afternoon looks to skirt along the southern Mid-Atlantic. Following that, a period of below normal temperatures will set in for remainder of next week leading up to Christmas.


Dec 3E

Blame the big time changeover to rain on simple physics. Counter-clockwise air rotating around the Low pressure center as it moved north along the I-95 corridor pulled in much warmer, moist air from the Atlantic. In fact, water temperatures along the NJ coast, Long Island and New England are above normal, while coastal areas along the DelMarVa and the Carolinas are below normal. This may be a factor behind the sharp temperature contrast shown above as the storm pulled north...southern and central Jersey had a nearly a 30 degree rise in temperature over 24 hours! I did not forecast for the I-95 cities in this storm because it looked clear from the beginning they would get more rain than snow. Philadelphia was the exception as they received snow where rain was expected first. My call for schools was off somewhat or at least reversed as I expected some closings and instead we had early dismissals. The graphic below from illustrates the second phase of our storm as it heads north, giving Boston a taste of Baltimore weather... snow, then a period sleet and freezing rain, then rain.

Dec 3F

Thursday, December 15, 2005


Dec 3E Radar

As of 4:00 PM, our storm is well underway and has wreaked havoc with everyone's Thursday program, however it was very helpful that schools gave parents a lot of advance notice to make arrangements for the EXTREMELY early closings (2 and 3 hour closings were widespread in central Maryland). It appears that the snow, started earlier than expected, and hung on longer. At present, the colorized radars are showing conflicting precip types, and in comparing the radars between Accuweather and Intellicast over previous storms, I tend to side with Intellicast as it more accurately depicts what is taking place in my backyard. At present I have moderate freezing rain and this has been going on for several hours now.


Yes, I know... the real reason you are here is to decide if you have to do lesson plans or homework for Friday. Well, just plan ahead, wear your pajamas backwards and put the snow shovel upside down and that'll jink the storm so you can sleep in tomorrow, right?

DC schools: Probably opening on time, changeover and melting will allow roads to improve over the next 12 hours. N. Virginia: At least a 2-hour delay if not closed due to a longer period of freezing rain.

Baltimore City and south: Delays likely, closings unlikely due to earlier changeover to rain. (I expect Anne Arundel to have perhaps a 1-hour delay but not closed, as they would have switched over to rain early tonight.)

Baltimore/Harford/Cecil Counties: Tough call here. I am going out on a limb and saying they are going to start with a 2-hour delay and then see how much melting/warming takes place. Obviously if we wake up and discover the temps rose to 40 overnight, then it's a no brainer, you'll be in on time Friday. The determining factor is to what extent the northern and western parts of those counties have more icing than south and east. If it becomes apparent that at least 1/2 of the county is has significant icing, power outages, downed trees and powerlines, they will close with no delay. Even if the temp rises to 33 or 34, that is not going to do much to melt 1/4 inch of ice in a few hours, especially when atmosphere is saturated and unable to soak up additional moisture.

Frederick/Carroll/York Counties and Southeastern PA Schools: Widespread closings and delays as these regions will be locked into the freezing rain for most of the night. 1/4 to 1/2 inch of ice will be common and some areas may see up to 1" which could bring down high tension transmission lines and damage towers.


Dec 3E Temps

The real issue is going to be this expected changeover from frozen to liquid precip in the overnight hours. I have some big problems with the plan being purported by the news and weather channel. News anchors always seem to overfocus on that magic 32 degrees, because they all report on it by saying..."So if we can jjuusstt get the mercury to creep a little but above 32, we'll be in better shape, right?" You know as well as I it is not that simple. Sure the 2 meter level temperature (what the temp is at 6 feet above the ground) might be 34 or 35, but without the sun in play and nighttime coming, bringing the air temp to slightly above freezing does not alleviate at all any significant icing problems. It will take a prolonged period of 6 or more hours with rising temps to get real melting in areas where you experience more than a light glazing of ice. This is why I firmly believe many Baltimore Metro Schools will be at least delayed 2-hours Friday and many northern areas may be closed. Take a look at the air temperature profile for Thursday afternoon. Another fun site to analyze current road conditions is the Maryland Dept of Transportation's interactive "Roadway Weather" which reports current roadway temps and status.

Brief update later tonight before bedtime, and I'll definitely be back online tomorrow around 6AM.

Wednesday, December 14, 2005


Hey everyone I am sorry for the silence on Wednesday!! I am so frustrated. My blasted comcast cable modem was offline all day and I was totally disconnected from the internet. I had almost had seizures for being so unaware of the outside world, and The Weather Channel was not any help..the loca forecast seemed to conflict all day what the on air mets were saying. I am now clunking along with "super fast AOL 9.0" as a temporary backup at $6.00/hr. Hope to have problem fixed and a more detailed update out tomorrow, especially for readers from PA on north to MA. This post is primarily for first stage of the storm... in MD, VA and WV.

STORM SUMMARY REGARDING SCHOOLS: Most areas in central and western MD will see precip begin as snow between 8 and 10 AM, then quickly change over to sleet, which should continue for a long period... perhaps until 3 PM, when it will become freezing rain. The exception will be areas near the Chesapeake Bay. "Border towns" such as mine (Dundalk) that border water may escape significant icing, but travel just a few miles west of here and I think much of Baltimore City and Washington and all points north and west of I-95 will be a skating rink by Noon. Northern Baltimore County, Frederick, Carroll and even rural parts of Howard County are going to experience homeowner's insurance rate-busting ice accretion of 1/3 to 1/2 inch. Rule of thumb on this storm: It will get worse as day progresses.

I am still leaning toward a 4-day weekend for metro Baltimore schools, and this is NOT hype-casting or wish-casting. Most other districts in affected areas of PA, NY, and NE will be closed or delayed Friday only. This will be one of the toughest calls schools have faced in a long time. However, with half of Baltimore County under an "ICE STORM WARNING" (never seen that in my whole life) and even the Winter Weather Advisory sounds so scary I don't even want to venture out on my front step...Mother Nature might be making the decison for us. However, I see problems with the forecast and here's my concerns/scenarios:

1. First Scenario: As of 12AM Thursday morning, our storm is still way south and will take precip a while to reach and begin coating ground in Baltimore due to dry air factors. However evaporative cooling factor may impede a changeover to rain later in the day even for areas near the water. As a result, schools open on time, hedging against the hope that the atmosphere will warm enough to prevent an early dismissal before 2 PM, and hope that computer models overnight decide to back off the calls for 1/4-1/2 inch ice.

2. Second Scenario: However, an early dismissal would wreak total havoc with parents in that now they are fighting their frustration AND leaving work early AND icy roads AND bad traffic AND reduced visibility as conditions will be real bad county-wide by noon Thursday... and they'll ask "why didn't schools just close today."

3. Third Scenario: Tough spot for Districts ... but they "take one for the team" and close outright on the HOPE that the forecast for all this supposedly terrible ice coming our way actually shows up? Or will it be an embarrassing situation where schools close and the ice never materializes until...say 4 PM? (remember the dire Heavy Snow Warning of late Feb 05, the snow started at 10 AM, did not stick until 3PM). It is a difficult call to make anytime there is inclement weather as you WANT Mother Nature to make it obvious to everyone the basis of your decision. The hard part comes in trying to second guess as to what she will do in order to best protect your families, students and colleagues.

Based on the expected severity of this... I am leaning towards an all-out close for most of the Balto Metro area...incl the city, Howard, Frederick, Carroll, Harford. Cecil is not under a watch or warning so they might eek out a day. Then again, Howard County might just roll the dice like they always do. But I think districts will pull the trigger just for fear that students/parents/teachers may be caught in an ice storm on their way home..whether it is noon, 2pm or 4pm. Friday could end up being a 2 hour delay (expect for places like Frederick County MD on north to Bucks Co are certain to close on Fri). Read the text of the ice storm warning and it will terrify you if you have small children who normally walk home from school under trees or powerlines. I certainly hope that kids DO NOT go outside during the storm because real bad things can happen real fast in ice storms.

Thursday morning, provided I have been granted "extra time" to forecast, I will post a hourly precip estimate and storm track analysis for phase 2 of this event.. from PA to NE.

Tuesday, December 13, 2005


Dec 3C

Special note to non-public school readers: Since certain schools block any sites, I am beginning to reorganize the content of this site under a new address: In honor of my hard-working school colleages, Each post is actually going to appear on that site first, then I will copy, paste and edit for this second. So if you want an updated scoop on the latest, go to the address first. Eventually, once I get all the formatting changes transferred, which may take several months, I expect the site to be discontinued, but I will leave the new address listed prominently for anyone who does not check back frequently.

12/13 9:30 AM UPDATE: Computer models are indicating a slower onset of the precipitation in the Mid-Atlantic region Thursday morning, especially along the I-95 corridor. This means when the precip does begin to fall, it will have a deep layer of cold air to penetrate, and with many road and ground surfaces likely to be in the 20's by daybreak, several hours of snow and freezing rain are expected. Mixed precip should begin between 4 and 6 AM, continuing until at least 10 AM, followed by a gradual changeover to freezing rain, sleet and perhaps rain south and east of I-95 cities. Then as the secondary Low develops heading northeast toward New England, cold air will be drawn southward behind the storm and into the Baltimore-Washington area, turning any remaining moisture back over to a brief period of snow before ending, as well as freezing over what did fall during the day. Tonight, Winter Storm Watches will follow the current Special Weather Statements.

1. WHAT ABOUT SCHOOL? The situation presenting itself regarding school on Thursday will be one of either...

A) "Do we get them in before it starts?" (which is possible given that computers have continued to slow down the onset);

B) "Do we go with a 2-hour delay and then re-evaluate at 7AM?" (which might cause more problems than it would solve in that the later school starts, the more likely buses and walkers would be caught in a period of heavy freezing rain), or everyone's favorite default solution...

C) "Do we outright close because by 5AM it will be apparent that road conditions are going to deteriorate as the day progresses?"

Actually the most logical and scientifically appropriate choice is...

D) "Let's open 2 hours early to avoid the precip and the traffic!" I'm up for it, any takers? Either way you slice this storm, it will be a dicey call for administrators and commuters. If you must travel, plan on a lot of extra time as freezing precip is expected during the morning AND evening commute Thursday.

2. WHAT'S THIS ABOUT A FOUR DAY WEEKEND? I would be remiss if I did not give you the full story, and it is plain to see why this could happen if you simply consider the NWS forecast for, say, Towson, MD. Cold air sweeping in behind the departing Thursday storm will change any liquid precip in the air or on the ground back over to frozen, and overnight temperatures will drop low enough to produce a potential skating rink for Friday morning. Please understand this is not hype-casting or wish-casting.If anything I think many of us would wish for snow instead of ice (translate: you on the sofa with a heating pad and Ben-Gay after an hour of scraping 1/4" ice off your car). This same scenario happened in late January 2004, and many Baltimore area schools actually ended up with a 5 day weekend. Remember that one? It was the same time quarter grades were due. I'll bet dept chairs and administrators remember it better than teachers do!

3. WHAT'S THIS ABOUT SOME PRE-CHRISTMAS BLIZZARD? Not enough reliable information available at present to make a reasoned call, but yes, Virginia, there will at least be snow on the ground at Christmas. A developing story so check back later for updates on this.

Monday, December 12, 2005


Dec 3B

Forecasters and computer models are growing increasingly concerned over a complex winter weather situation developing in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeast for the Wednesday night-Friday night time period. The most recent indication of this is a Special Weather Statement issued by the Baltimore/DC NWS Office Monday afternoon. Emphasis is on the word COMPLEX. Let me break it down for those of you wrangling over what this may mean for schools, especially in Maryland. (Please note that for the time being I will refrain from specifically referring to certain larger K-12 educational institutions in the post by name for fear that doing so may result in this website being rendered unavailable to you at a public school)

1. WHAT IS LIKELY TO HAPPEN. A multiple Low pressure system will approach the Mid-Atlantic at same time that a fresh supply of cold air is becoming available from Quebec, Canada. Recent snow cover will serve to reinforce this process. The two air masses will clash starting Wednesday night and produce a wide range of precipitation types, including snow, sleet, freezing rain, sleet, fog and rain. However, the orientation of the Lows is such that the I-95 corridor is likely to see precip begin as snow, sleet and freezing rain, then in the mid-morning hours on Thursday, it may change to plain rain as the Low(s) will pass close to or over major cities. The timing of this is critical as it relates to the Thursday morning commute. At present it is expected the cold air will retreat slowly, allowing for a slower changeover of the precip from frozen to liquid. This scenario would result in Maryland, WV and Western/Interior Virginia schools being disrupted on Thursday morning with at least a delay.

2. WHAT IS NOT LIKELY TO HAPPEN. The Lows take a more inland/southerly track that would not scour out the cold air prior to arrival, and what was going to be an ice/rain storm becomes a surprise snowstorm with 6-12 inches on Thursday. The dynamics of this storm are much different than Dec 9, so do not expect this to happen. Interior sections of PA, western MD and NY will see a moderate snowfall as depicted by the graphic above, but not the major I-95 cities.

3. WHAT IS THE HANGUP OVER THIS? If the frozen precip Wed night takes longer to changeover Thu AM, Maryland schools may be looking at a "2 hour delay...reevaluate at 7AM" situation which happened in late January 2004. Continue checking back on this developing situation, as further posts will elaborate and analyze the storm in more detail.

Saturday, December 10, 2005


Dec 2D

15.1 Inches in Concord, NH as a reminder of why this powderhound just loves snow. Maybe not the "clearing off the car" bit, but there's something special about being taken captive by Mother Nature for a few hours in a big snowstorm. Neither the richest nor the most powerful person in the world can do anything about it, we're all in it together, so the best solution is to just revel in the beauty and enjoy the free time that some of us get when you see this out your window. I know I did, and in a few minutes I'm going out to do some more reveling "in it" with my daughter...literally. Credit for this photo goes to a meteorologist who posted it on the Eastern US Weather Forums, a great source of wide-ranging discussion on every aspect of weather analysis you could possibly imagine. I don't post on this forum, I just read it occasionally for reference and entertainment!


Dec 3A
The pattern currently dominating U.S. weather is likely to produce one or two more storms, but they may not produce as much snow for the Northeast Corridor as some of us would like. At least we can enjoy the pre-storm analysis paralysis (or paranalysis for short). The first GFS incantation of the next storm looks to be a blase drifter to the East Coast with intermittent snows. For the Thursday 12/15 period, other models show a Great Lakes cutter, and still others point to an Appalachians runner. Let the speculation games begin!

Wednesday, December 7, 2005




Dec Storm 2A

SUMMARY: Winter Storm and Heavy Warnings blanket the Map from Ohio to New England, and all the elements seem to be in place for a quick hitting, fast moving Mid-Atlantic and Northeast Snowstorm. While this could end up a surprise 6-12" bonanza for the major cities, it may only come at the very last second and in the daybreak morning hours on Friday. Overall accumulations for most areas under currently under a warning will range closer to 6" than to 12". The snow will fall in a short time period, from midnight Thursday to 9AM Friday, and by afternoon, the sun should peek out before setting on a cold and snowy wind-swept landscape. Many schools will close as crews quickly discover how difficult it will be trying to keep up with snowfall rates of 1-2 inches per hour, and the morning commute on Friday will be very hazardous and nerve-wracking for those who have to venture out. Analysis follows below and snowfall accumulations to be posted this afternoon.


Dec 2B


1. Plenty of cold air in place. Lower than normal sea-surface temperatures off Mid-Atlantic coast helping to enhance and stabilize position of high.

2. Impressive southern jet stream tapping ample Gulf and Pacific moisture. Link.

3. Neutral NAO will allow storm to make a gradual East-Northeast jog as it moves toward coast, instead of bypass or get suppressed too far south. This kind of “slight ENE angling” is what we saw in the Feb 2003 blizzard and similar storms.

4. Fast moving storm will “moistent the column” overnight and by daybreak widespread heavy snow throughout region from Virginia to northern New Jersey, then moving toward NYC by mid morning and Boston by afternoon.

5. Terrible timing for Friday morning commuters…below freezing road surfaces given that snow will be falling in overnight hours means it sticks on contact, creating instantly slippery and hazardous conditions, as well as sharply reduced visibility for drivers in morning hours.

6. Perfect timing for students and teachers looking for a 3-day weekend. You can bet your boots this will close most schools from central and northern Virginia on north and east including the WV panhandle, central and eastern Maryland (Baltimore and DC Metros), Central, SE and Eastern Pennsylvania, the Philly Metro schools might be crazy enough to start with a 2-hour delay. NYC Schools will have a tougher call as snow is coming later in the day, they might end up with early dismissal.

7. Perfect timing for those who want Saturday to recover and dig out, as storm will be long gone by Friday evening, and sunshine and slightly warmer temps return Sat.


Check the Baltimore/Washington NWS Forecast Discussion, they post a small list of criteria for your big time snowstorm, and sadly there are some elements in place to PREVENT this from being the storm you want it to be.

1. Placement of the High…is not to the North or West (as in the classic spot of southern Ontario or upstate New York. This kinds of High can drill a cold air damming situation in front of the storm. Granted we have cold air in place, but High is in the WRONG place.

2. There’ll be considerable mixing with and changeover to sleet/rain in southern parts of the storm, lower southern Maryland, eastern Virginia. This almost always robs a storm of energy which generally cuts down on snowfall for everyone.

3. Balt/DC NWS said it best…when there are multiple lows in play, this also reduces the likelihood of big snow because the energy required to concentrate on one big cyclogenesis is spread too thin among several systems.

4. Fast-moving storm will limit the amount of time it has to drop snow. That alone is going to knock a few inches of everyone’s 12 inch expectation.

5. Several low pressure systems have well over 1000 miles to cover between now and Friday morning, and must undergo a lot more transformation to become the blinding white snowmonster some are wishing. Granted you can see the moisture inflow from the Pacific and Gulf, but that moisture has to interact with the northern branch of the jet stream just right in order for those heavy snow warnings to materialize.

6. Low-level warming as a result of that return flow from the departing high I mentioned in earlier post. If we start to see southeast winds during the storm, this will first raise upper level temperatures, then surface, inducing a mix and changeover, which robs the storm of energy, cutting on accumulations for a large area. Also consider that snow-to-liquid ratios in the I-95 corridor will not be 20- or even 15-to-1 but more like 10-to-1, which means whatever the QPF (liquid equivalent forecast) is for your area, that's likely to translate pretty easily to the inches you'll see.


Tuesday, December 6, 2005

Dec Storm 2

Well lookey what we have here...last night, a potentially bigtime snowstorm was on the books. What one good night's sleep will do, huh? (for NWS forecasters, not me). It seems NWS has ramped the storm back down to earth overnight, and mostly removed words being used yesterday like,"dangerous, very significant, etc...6 or more inches." For example, Balt/DC NWS was really sounding the alarm last night, and now has an innocuous "light to moderate snow" Special Weather Statement. Cancelling the hype was a good idea, because there remains the possibility the Ohio Valley Low and the Southern Rockies Low never link up the way we want them to.. and the Mid Altantic High nudges offshore more than we want it to. Throw in the fact that this storm is moving faster, thus limiting time for it to drop precip. Result? Our big storm never materializes and we get KaDUDa # 2. That's why I and other online forecasters were hesitating. Granted Winter Storm Watches may still be hoisted for a large area, but we may very well see a in Snow Advisories and a final tally around 4-5 inches. I'll bet when Accuweather updates this AM, they dramatically scale back the 6-12 inches they painted for the Mid-Atl and NE on Friday. You know I'm a born and bred powderhound, and I hate to be a party pooper, but I'm not going to get you all riled up for a storm that might not live up to the hype.

Let me add that while many areas may not get the 6-12 inches we hope for, the timing of this will be that even 5 inches occuring overnight from 9PM to 6AM will be just perfect to cancel many schools for Friday from Virginia to New York City and everywhere in between. Main reason is that this will be a quick snow, and crews will not be able to keep up, thus they will give up until it is over. Then you'll be able to roll over and go back to sleep. Now that's a Happy Friday! (Forecast note: I will be out the entire morning delivering a toddler to a grandmother, so no updates until at least 1pm.)

Already the drumbeats have started for another major winter storm and Special Weather Statements are starting to fly out the gate. I am still digesting and reviewing the previous storm to see what went wrong, as my grades are coming in about a D- average on snow totals (although I did score big time with Richmond, 4" forecasted and a result of 4.2" !). We have all seen the pre-storm hype end up bigger than the storm itself, so I am going to look over the data for this one more closely. The interesting thing favoring the powderhounds is that both Accuweather and the National Weather Service are sounding the trumpet for a potential major snowfall in the Mid-Atlantic and up I-95. Keep in mind the Dec 5 Dud did not officially qualify as an "I-95 Special" as no one along my favorite highway saw at least 6" (sorry, Ocean Twp NJ's 6.7" does not count). A true-blue I-95 Special is where all the megalopolis cities (and their surroundings counties) receive a good solid 6+ from DC to Boston. This storm appears to have the potential to deliver that as there will be plenty of cold air in place, and radiational cooling in advance of the storm caused by Storm 1's snowfall will help to keep temps down right up to the onset of snow Thursday night. I am not ready to issue preliminary accumulations as I have to review the QPF maps, but the elements are slowly coming together. In fact, before we go over the numbers on Storm 2, we will first discuss what are "the elements" required for a good shovel-smackin' snowstorm along the East Coast.

Some of the basic items I and every other serious forecaster looks for is the classic dome of High pressure parked over New England or New York. The current realm of blue skies shining above is that High, except that it is nudging far enough south to create the tell-tale "cold air damming" down the east side of the Appalachians. This bodes well for powderhounds in the southern portion of the Northeast Corridor (from Richmond to Philly). However, what concerns me is the trajectory of the storm, whose end game will be the combination of several Low pressure systems coming together by Friday morning. It is possible this storm will move just simply straight east, and though it will throw a big shield of snow out for hundreds of miles, it MAY miss the northern sections of 95 from Connecticut on north to Boston. Go run the computer models I have linked to the right to see what I am talking about. For those in interior sections, such as West Virginia, central Virginia, central and eastern PA, and especially the mountains of NC and SC, depending on your location, upsloping may yield higher snowtotals for you, along with a significant ice storm in the Carolinas.

All the way around, this storm looks to be a block/backbuster event, PROVIDING that the key element, that High Pressure dome, does not detach itself from the picture too soon, right? That would allow a return flow on the backside to link with the onshire flow of the approaching Low, and thus our storm starts as snow and changes to all rain for the big cities. I have seen that kind of situation before...we got all excited about a big storm coming from the MidWest, only to have our 4-5 inches get all washed away as the warm front passed over.
THAT's the piece I want to investigate further before I sound the trumpets on a 6-12" Early Season I-95 Kahuna. Yes, I am resurrecting that term because this may definitely qualify as a Big K.

Sunday, December 4, 2005


Dec Storm 1

12/5 LATE AFTERNOON UPDATE: Am back from doctor's visit and looking over update data now. What a puzzling storm! At 1:20 PM today we are in White Marsh, MD at our children's doctor office, and a nurse pokes her head in the door to mention to the attending nurse with us that schools are closing early. We quick glance outside the window wondering if something huge changed in the 2 hours since I had been at the computer. What do I see? NOT A FLAKE! So I think, "maybe just our area has no snow, and everyone else is being clobbered." I hear on the radio en route home something about "4-6 inches for Baltimore" then I hear on a different station something about "1-3 inches by tomorrow morning." My wife, who is from northwestern Pennsylvania, often kids me about how ridiculous all this really is...NOT EVER would have her schools (Crawford County) near Erie closed early for no snow in the sky. So in a futile attempt to put some science on the face of this storm, I will soon explain the graphics I assembled above and try to make sense out of a seemingly senseless snowstorm. I admit we will have a long way to go to reach verification of the amounts I predicted, but we'll just let it go for now and see what happens. For those who check-in frequently, please post your local observations in the comments.

12-5 LATE MORNING UPDATE : I have a strong suspicion the storm is coming farther north and west than anticipated, and the cone of heavy snow will be shifting to include the I-95 cities of DC, Baltimore and Philly. Not because I like to wishcast, but in looking at the water vapor imagery loop it is clear the Eastern Mid-Atlantic is fully enveloped in the bright white, and the overall tilt of the moisture riding up from the Gulf and Pacfic says to me that the moisture stream is exerting more of an influence than the dry slot behind it. I think the Snow Advisories will be changed to Winter Storm Warnings and amounts will be upped a few inches, probably settling on 4-8" for metro areas. I am going to leave my amounts in place for now until I can get more data. Have a double doctor appointment for both childs at 1:15 PM so no updates until late late this afternoon, probably not before 5 PM. Overall this means that WV, most of VA and south central PA will be in on the action, as will metro PHL and NYC. As for Boston, we'll see how the secondary forms and what it does before I go out on a limb there. Central NJ...sadly but if the action shifts N and W you might get the sleet/snow mix which will cut down on your accumulations. Will be a fun storm to watch. I will take kid pics in the snow and post here. Will also be revising portions of earlier post...


Two of the last three years have featured significant snows occuring within the first 7 days of December across the Mid-Atlantic and Northeast. I use the Baltimore Metro region as my point of reference because that's where I have lived since 2001. Consider:

DEC 5-6, 2002: DC, Baltimore and Philadelphia, among many other areas, receives 7-9 inches in a blockbuster first snowstorm of the season that closes all area schools for 2 days (Thu and Fri). This storm kicked off a very productive and snowy season that culminated in the February 2003 Blizzard. This month was a classic example of the saying, "What happens in December, Winter will remember."

DEC 6, 2003: Baltimore and the Eastern-Mid Atlantic in general receive for a second year in a row (on the same exact date), a season opener significant storm delivering 6-7 inches. The main event of the winter (in Baltimore) was a 3-day ice and snow storm in late January 2004, and rest of the season was punctuated by several mini-snows causing a higher than normal number of 2-hour delays for schools due to icy conditions.

DEC 2004: The opening storm of the month was initially thought to be snow and turned into an all-rain Nor'easter event. The rest of the winter for most of the Mid-Atlantic was very disappointing, except for two major storms. The January 21-23 Blizzard was the most notable event of the winter, covering a large area with 6-30 inches from Washington, DC to northern new England. The last week of February was the second major event for the Baltimore area, delivering 4-6 inches in a first round, followed by a few more inches in a second round several days later. Overall, last winter was more remembered for the extraordinary snowfall in New England as that regon received the brunt of most storms throughout the season.

WHAT IS THE POINT OF REVIEWING STORM HISTORY ON THE EVE OF THE FIRST BIG STORM OF THIS SEASON? I think it is important to see the pattern that has been developing the past few years, especially when you factor in the influence of the recent hurricane season. Elliot Abrams of AccuWeather posted on his website last winter a study he conducted of first snowfalls in Philadelphia. He discovered that in seasons where the first snowstorm produced 7 or more inches of snow, the remainder of the winter (in that region of the Mid-Atlantic) saw frequent and productive snowstorms. In seasons where the first snowstorm was less than 7 inches, the remainder of the winter was lackluster and disappointing (at least for powderhounds.)

What I'm getting at is that if history is an accurate guide, this storm had better:
A) live up to the billing it's received so far, and deliver 6-8 inches for BAL and PHL
B) Change the trend so that the first storm does not serve as an indicator of future storms
C) Fizzle now while we are still ahead of the game, so we can try again next week
I have read through all the models, discussions and predictions for this storm all across the internet, and a few things stand out that are the basis of my forecast. I want very much to back up my analysis with detailed links and reference to all the sources I've used thus far. However that will have to wait until later Monday. For now I will just give you the First Call and then refine it with analysis tomorrow.


This projection assumes a snow onset by 12 noon Monday. in all areas under Winter Storm Watches or Warnings. In Northern VA, DC and Baltimore Metro areas, schools WILL be in session Monday and are NOT LIKELY to have an early dismissal UNLESS it becomes apparent the storm is moving in faster than anticipated. Unless there is a major change in track or eventual intensity of the storm, I expect most schools in the Watch area to be CLOSED TUESDAY, and reopening Wednesday with a 2-hour delay, depending on the amount of snow. 8 or more inches is going to guarantee schools close for 2 days due to time it takes to clear parking lots, and just the shock of the first major snow arriving so soon.

STORM GRADE ACCUMULATIONS (BY 6PM Tuesday 12-6, verified by NWS Spotter reports and official measurement sites.)

VIRGINIA: Roanoke...9 / Richmond...4 / Charlottesville...7 / Washington...5

MARYLAND: BWI airport....5.5 / Towson...4 / Columbia...6 / Dundalk....5

PENNSYLVANIA: PHL airport...6 / Paoli...4 / Bucks County...5 (will add more later)

NEW YORK : Central Park...5 / JFK airport...4

NEW ENGLAND: Logan Airport...7 / Woburn, MA...6 / Taunton, MA...7

(I will add more tomorrow. If you want your location include, request such in the comments.)



Saturday, December 3, 2005

Am I talking about Hurricane Epsilon...
the 14th named storm of this record-smashing season?


(Actually, no...I am really referring to:)
Johns Hopkins University's Bayview Hospital
Baltimore, Maryland


Now you know the reason this site has been offline for so long. I apologize to all the loyal readers out there whom have put up with my silence and lack of communication or forecasts for over a month now. As you can imagine, we have been heavily immersed in baby preparation, and it paid off. Mommy had an emergency C-section, but all went well and we have a beautiful baby girl, to complement our already darling first little girl who is thrilled about her new baby sister.


Everyone is home now and resting peacefully after 4 days in recovery. Those of you with several children know better than I how challenging it can be to keep sane in a busy home full of rambunctious kids. But at least for this holiday season, we will be thoroughly enjoying the relative calm of a 2-year old and a 1-week old. As I write this, I am blessed to have both children asleep, as well as Mommy napping too! (I'm sure that will change very soon.)


Kaselyn proved to be the catalyst I needed to get the forecast site back on line. Now I am slowly finding out that we (as in the I-95 corridor and interior PA, VA, WV) might have our first big snowfall of the season on December 5-6. So I am very excited to have all my ladies back home, but equally as excited that we might get to have a real snow at a time when I can enjoy it while I am off for school. Jayla, (my first daughter) has her first Christmas program this evening, and after that it will be an early bedtime for everyone. I usually get more motivated to begin forecasting again when it becomes more evident that MY FAMILY will be among the happy recipients of a snowfall significant enough to close school. The double bonus right now is that a snowday while I am on my 2-week paternity leave does not count against my leave time, nor do I have to write lesson plans for the substitute! I can just stay home, enjoy the snow, take pictures, and spend quality family time. We feel truly blessed and my best wishes to your families that you will feel these same kinds of blessing this Christmas season.

NOW, with no further delay... I return to the job you've all been waiting so patiently for. SNOWSTORM FORECASTING. I am looking into the latest computer model projections for this apparent new storm on the docket for Sunday night into Tuesday. While I am out this evening, take a look at the latest QPF maps for Sat-Sun and Mon-Tue as well as the latest round of Special Weather Statements to see why I think it looks good for the Mid-Atlantic and Northeast to get their first I-95 special of the year.